一分钟学写作|《The Elements of Style》惯用法的基本规则(11)


第一章

惯用法的基本规则(11)

规则十一

位于句首的分词短语

必须与句子的主语相关

Walking slowly down the road,he saw a woman accompanied by two children.

他沿路漫步时,看见一位妇女由两个孩子陪伴着。

walking这个分词和句子的主语he相关

,而与woman 无关。

如果写作者想使walking 和woman相关,

则必须改写如下:

He saw a woman,accompanied by two children,walking slowly down the road。

他看见一位妇女由两个孩子陪伴着沿路漫步。

连词后的分词(短语)或介词后的动名词(短语),作同位语用的名词(短语),形容词和形容词短语,它们位于句首时,也要遵循上述规则。例如;

On arriving in Chicago, his friends met him at the station.

On arriving in Chicago,he was met at the station by his friends.

他一到芝加哥,就由朋友们在车站迎接。

A soldier of proved valor, they entrusted him with the defense of the city.

A soldier of proved valor,he was entrusted with the defense of the city.

他是一名久经考验的

勇士,受命保卫该城。

Young and inexperienced, the task seemed easy to me.

Young and inexperienced,I thought the task easy.

我既年轻又缺少经

验,因此认为这项任务很容易完成。

Without a friend to counsel him, the temptation proved irresistible.

Without a friend to counsel him,he found the temptation irresistible.

由于没有朋友规劝,他抵挡不住那种引诱。

违背规则11写出来的句子,往往会非常搞笑。例如:

Being in a dilapidated condition,I was able to buy the house very cheap.

因为我墙坍题倒,所以能便宜地买下了这

幢房子。

Wondering irresolutely what to do next,the clock struck twelve.

由于对下一步该做什么犹豫不决,时钟敲

了十二点。

As a mother of five,with another on the way,my ironing board is always up.

我的烫衣板作为一个五个孩子的母亲,肚里的一个又快要呱呱坠地,总是合上不用。

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一分钟学写作|《The Elements of Style》惯用法的基本规则(11)

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