一分钟学写作|《The Elements of Style》经常误用的词和词组(12)


第四章

经常误用的词和词组(12)

Partially.

该词并非处处可与partly互换。当谈及某种状态或情形时,用partially表示“在一定程度上”的意思最为贴切。例如:

I’m partially resigned to it.

对此我有点听之任之。

partly表示“部分”的概念,与整体相对,通常用以指物。例如:

The log was partially submerged.

The log was partly submerged.

(那根木头有一部分浸入水中。)

He was partially in and partially out.

He was partly in and partly out.

He was part in,part out.(他的身子一半在里面,一半在外面。)

Participle for verbal noun.

There was little prospect of the Senate acccpting even this compromise.

There was little prospect of the Senate’s accepting.even this compromise.(参议院接受这种妥协的前景甚至也很渺茫。)

在左栏的句子中,accepting是现在分词;在右栏的句子中,accepting是动词状名词(即动名词)。左栏的那种句子结构不是很好。但显而易见的是,右栏的句子说的不是参议院的前景,而是它接受妥协的前景。

当然,使用所有格不恰当的句子应该要改写。例如:

In the event of a reconsideration of the whole matter’s becoming necessary

If it should become necessary to reconsider the whole matter.

(如果有必要对整个事情重新加以考虑的话)

There was great dissatisfaction with the decision of the arbitrators being favorable to the company.

There was great dissatisfaction with the arbitrators’decision in favor of the company.

(对仲裁人作出有利于公司的决定大为不满。)

People.

该词是一个多义词(《美国传统词典》

列出十种意思)。The people(人民)是一个政治用话,不要和 the public(公众)相混淆。政治上的支持或反对来自“人民”(the people);而艺术鉴赏或商业赞助则来自“公众”(the public)。

与数词连用时最好不用people,而用persons。试想,如果说six people(六个人)中五个人走了,还剩下几个人呢?回答就会变成onc people,显然,这是错误的。而正确的说法应是one person(一个人)。

Personally.

该词常常是可以省略的。例如:

Personally,I thought it was a good book.

(就我个人而言,我认为这是一本好书。)

I thought it a good book.

(我认为这是一本好书)

Possess.

可能该词听上去似乎比have(有)或own(拥有)给人以更深刻的印象,所以常爱用此词。这种用法无可厚非,但需加警惕。例如:

He possessed great courage.

(他具有很大的勇气。)

He had great courage(was very brave).

(他很有勇气/十分勇敢。)

He was the fortunate possessor of

(他是…的幸运的占有者。)

He was lucky enough to own (他有幸拥…)

Presently.

该词有两个意思:“过一会儿”和“当前”。由于含义不清、模棱两可,最好只用它的第一个意思。例如:

He’ll be here presently.

他一会儿就上这儿来。

这里,presently意指soon(不久)或in a short time(马上)

Prestigious

.该形容词常是万不得已才使用的。词典中虽列有此词,但并不是说非用此词不可。

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一分钟学写作|《The Elements of Style》经常误用的词和词组(12)

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