怎么进行选题与主题阅读?


前两天我们说到了论文的层级~对论文的标准有一个判断~

我们也说到了 「“写论文的正确态度就是保持兴趣和保持审美敏感”」

要找一个自己感兴趣的好选题,是写论文的前的必要条件。

那什么才是一个“好”选题?

又怎么进行阅读并做笔记?

本章就接着上文,继续完成正式写作前的选题和阅读准备。

唔~翻译很渣,还请多多包涵。

和之前一样,完整英文原版的阅读链接可直接点击【阅读原文】跳转 查看

正文:

乔丹·彼得森的Essay写作指南

第一部分 介绍

逼自己认真写论文的最强理由

6个让你写Essay瞬间轻松的技巧

第二部分:论文的层级

什么样的论文是美的?

第三部分:主题和阅读清单

你在论文中要解答的中心问题就是你论文主题提出的问题。

The central question that you are trying to answer with the essay is the topic question.

以下是一些可能有趣的主题问题: Here are some potentially interesting topic questions:
  1. 邪恶存在吗?Does evil exist?

  2. 所有文化都同样值得尊重吗?Are all cultures equally worthy of respect?

  3. 男人和女人在关系中应该如何相处?How should a man and a woman treat each other in a relationship?

  4. 什么会使一个人变好?What, if anything, makes a person good?

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

这些是非常笼统的抽象主题。这使他们具有哲理。好的主题不必太笼统。

These are very general, abstract topics. That makes them philosophical. Good topics do not have to be so general.

这里有一些很好的,更具体的主题:Here are some good, more specific topics:
  1. 凯撒大帝统治的关键事件是什么?What were the key events of Julius Caesar’s rule?

  2. 查尔斯·达尔文的进化论的关键要素是什么?What are the critical elements of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution?

  3. 欧内斯特·海明威(Ernest Hemingway)的《太阳照常升起》是一本重要的书吗?Is “The Sun Also Rises,” by Ernest Hemingway, an important book?

  4. 怎么比较卡尔·荣格和西格蒙德·弗洛伊德的心理理论?How might Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud’s theory of the psyche be contrasted?

  5. 牛顿和爱因斯坦在时间概念上有何不同?How did Newton and Einstein differ in their conceptualization of time?

  6. 最近的伊拉克战争是正义还是不正义?Was the recent Iraq war just or unjust?

你可以通过两种不同的方式开始写论文。「你可以自己列出已分配的几个主题,也可以列出十个左右想回答的问题。」 如果 「需要选择自己的主题,或许可以开始创建并最终确定阅读列表。」

You can begin your essay writing process two different ways. You can either list the topics you have been assigned, or list ten or so questions that you might want to answer, if you are required to choose your own topic, or you can start to create and finalize your reading list.

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

如果你已经可以确定几个潜在的感兴趣的主题,可以从 「“主题”」 开始。如果不确定,则转至 「“阅读清单”」 部分开始建立你的阅读清单

If you think you can already identify several potential topics of interest, start with Topics. If you are unsure, then start constructing your Reading List.

「主题和阅读清单之间的选择」

主题

像示例一样,填写你准备的问题。 Put these in question form, as in the exam> ples above.

如果您无法做到这一点,那么你就必须多读一些书(无论如何你也可能需要完成阅读)。

If you can’t do this, then you have to do some more reading (which you will likely have to do to complete the essay anyway).

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

顺便说一句,没有所谓“阅读者瓶颈”这回事。如果您不会写(上面的清单),那是因为你无话可说,毫无头绪。在这种情况下,请不要以“所谓的“作家的创作瓶颈””为荣。「阅读一些内容。如果那不起作用,那就阅读些其他内容-也许更好。反复阅读,直到问题解决。」

There is, by the way, no such thing as reader’s block. If you can’t write, it is because you have nothing to say. You have no ideas. In such a situation, don’t pride yourself on your writer’s block. Read something. If that doesn’t work, read something else – maybe something better. Repeat until the problem is solved.

阅读清单

在此处列出必须阅读或想要阅读的内容。一般来说,这些应该是书籍或文章。

Indicate here what you have to or want to read. These should be books or articles, generally speaking.

如果不知道哪些文章或书籍可能合适或有用,则可以从Wikipedia文章或其他百科全书资源入手。

If you don’t know what articles or books might be appropriate or useful, then you could start with Wikipedia articles or other encyclopedic sources,

并查看它们的参考列表以获取有关进一步阅读的灵感。可以从这些资料开始。

and look at their reference lists for ideas about further reading. These sources are fine as a beginning.

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

如果你发现某人的写作特别有趣且合适,那么通常了解他们所钦佩和学习的作家,是很有用的。

If you find someone whose writing is particularly interesting and appropriate, it is often very useful to see if you can find out what authors they admired and read.

「可以通过在他们的著作文本或参考文献列表中找到他们所喜欢的作者。」 并可以以这种方式通过广泛的学习而富有学习成果。

You can do this by noting who they refer to, in the text of their writings or in the reference list. You can meander productively through wide bodies of learning in this manner.

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

除非另有指示,「每千篇论文需要5–10本书或文章。双倍行字距通常包含大约250个单词。」

Assume you need 5-10 books or articles per thousand words of essay, unless you have been instructed otherwise. A double-spaced page of typing usually contains about 250 words.

现在就列出你的阅读清单,即使现在做得不好。以后总是可以做得更好。 List your sources now, even if you have to do it badly. You can always make it better later.

阅读1。

注意:(有关引用的注意事项,请参见下一部分):

阅读2。

笔记:

阅读3。

笔记:

阅读4。

笔记:

阅读5。

笔记:

阅读6。

笔记:

阅读7。

笔记:

阅读8。

笔记:

阅读9。

笔记:

阅读10(如有必要,请重复)。

注意事项(如有必要,请重复):

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

做笔记的心理学说明和做笔记的注意事项

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

在阅读时,请查看是否能注意到引起你注意的任何内容。

While you are reading, see if you can notice anything that catches your attention.

这可能是你认为重要的事情,或者是您非常不同意的事情,或者是你可能想了解更多的事情。为此,你必须特别注意自己的情绪变化。

This might be something you think is important, or something that you seriously disagree with, or something that you might want to know more about. You have to pay careful attention to your emotional reactions to do this.

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

你如果还想记笔记。你可以将笔记放在上面列出的示例的下方。

You also want to take some notes. You can place your notes below the readings you listed above.

在做笔记时,不要费心去做一些愚蠢的事情,「例如在教科书中划高亮或加下划线。没有证据表明它有效。」

When you are taking notes, don’t bother doing stupid things like highlighting or underlining sentences in the textbook. There is no evidence that it works.

看起来就像工作。你需要做的是阅读以理解。阅读一点,然后写下你所学的内容或您脑海中出现的任何问题。

It just looks like work. What you need to do is to read for understanding. Read a bit, then write down what you have learned or any questions that have arisen in your mind.

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

永远不要一个字一个字地复制原文。学习和记忆的最重要部分是重新使用自己的语言写的东西。

Don’t ever copy the source word for word. The most important part of learning and remembering is the recreation of what you have written in your own language.

这并不是简单的“用你自己的话”。这是您与原作者之间的对话。

his is not some simplistic “use your own words.” This is the dialog you are having with the writer of your sources.

这是你试图对作者说:“你在说什么,这是我的理解。” 是你精炼出原文中心思想的时候。

This is your attempt to say back to the author “this is what I understand you are saying.” This is where you extract the gist of the writing.

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

如果有人问你这一天是怎么过的,你不会说:“嗯,首先我睁开了眼睛。然后我眨了眨眼,揉了揉。然后我把左脚放在地板上,接着是落下我的右腿。”

If someone asks you about your day, you don’t say, “Well, first I opened my eyes. Then I blinked and rubbed them. Then I placed my left leg on the floor, and then my right.”

你会把提问的人烦死。但,这样消除了多余的细节,而专注于传达重要的内容。

You would bore them to death. Instead, you eliminate the extra detail, and concentrate on communicating what is important.

这正是你在阅读过程中或阅读后记笔记时应该做的(「建议在读完后合上书再进行归纳概括会更好」,这样你就不会试图逐字抄写作者的文章,以致傻傻的以为自己做了一些工作)。

That is exactly what you are supposed to be doing when you take some notes during or after reading (after is often better, with the book closed, so that you are not tempted to copy the author’s writing word for word so that you can fool yourself into thinking you did some work).

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

如果你发现以这种方式记笔记很困难,请尝试此操作:「阅读一段。抬头 然后,对自己说,即使是在说悄悄话(如果您在图书馆中)时,也要大声说出该段的含义。」 听所说的话,然后迅速将其写下来。

If you find note-taking in this manner difficult, try this. Read a paragraph. Look away. Then say to yourself, out loud, even in a whisper (if you are in a library), what the paragraph meant. Listen to what you said, and then quickly write it down.

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

笔记的字数要求应该是论文字数的2到3倍。

你可能会认为这效率低下,但事实并非如此。为了清晰地写一些东西,或者以理性的方式谈论它,里需要了解的远不止实际所表达的。

Take about two to three times as many notes, by word, as you will need for your essay. You might think that is inefficient, but it’s not. In order to write intelligibly about something, or to speak intelligently about it, you need to know far more than you actually communicate.

这可以帮助您掌握前面所述的第六层级和第七层级-理解本文的上下文。从这些笔记中,您应该能够得出8-10个主题问题。

That helps you master level six and seven, described previously – the context within which the essay is to be understood. Out of those notes you should be able to derive 8-10 topic questions.

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

去试着这样做,记住,晚点再去整理和编辑,「先把它们列出来。」

Do so. Remember, they can be edited later. Just get them down.

点击【阅读原文】阅读 Jordan Peterson’s《Essay写作指南》全文

往期精彩

到底什么样的论文是“美”的?

6个让你写Essay瞬间轻松的技巧

一个月内完成毕业论文的最佳利器!你需要的不止是闹钟!

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

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怎么进行选题与主题阅读?
怎么进行选题与主题阅读?
怎么进行选题与主题阅读?
怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

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