教授有潜台词你造不造?Instructional words深扒贴


还记得

当初看西游记的时候

孙猴子被祖师敲了三下

就知道这是暗示

要三更天里去学艺

教授有潜台词你造不造?Instructional words深扒贴

当时还挺纳闷来着,

孙悟空咋就知道三下就指的是时间?

教授有潜台词你造不造?Instructional words深扒贴

好吧,

如果这算是孙悟空天赋异禀,

那为啥,

长大的我,

论文依旧写的那么辛苦不达标

同学们却都一个个高分?

教授有潜台词你造不造?Instructional words深扒贴

天,

我是不是错过了什么?

来自小E的记忆片段

So~

我们

此次

就来

讲讲

“教授的潜台词”

Instructional words

Instructional words

你们应该并不陌生。

绝大多数学校作业以及考试阅读题比如:essays、reports、literature reviews、critiques、proposals等都会有instructional words,

直译也就是“指导性词语”。

也就是教授给出的写作建议,表示他们希望你如何去Essay,作业或考试。

比如Analyse、Comment、Critical Analysis等等都是指导词。

那么,

就像孙悟空被敲的那三下~

你是如何理解这些单词的?

也是否如导师期望一样的做出正确的回应?

教授有潜台词你造不造?Instructional words深扒贴

现在我们就给出详细的解析,

你可要看好了!

(文字较多,注意收藏)

建议看英文原文:

account for

– 中文解释:陈述理由,解释

-潜台词:give reasons for

give an account of

– 中文解释:做出描述或是说明

-潜台词: describe

to take into account

– 中文解释:考虑、思考

-潜台词: to consider, to think of

analyse

– 中文解释:vt. 分析;分解;细察,分成各部分说明各部分, 并解释它们之间的关系以及发现,探讨相关问题。

-潜台词: divide into parts and describe each part and explain their relationship; discuss a problem

提醒:

此处的【分析】,可不意味着详细的介绍下就是的了。请先阅题,首先你得Separate or break up something into its component parts,这样你才可以discover its nature proportion, function, relationship等。老师要看到分解、思辨的过程,有节奏有逻辑的分析,这才是你该做的。

argue

-中文解释: vi. 争论,辩论;提出理由vt. 辩论,争论;证明;说服

-潜台词:systematically support or reject a position by presenting reasons and evidence for acceptance or rejection

提醒:

systematically的意思是有系统地; 有组织地; 有条不紊地。并且还要 presenting reasons and evidence,理由充分也要一点一点的列出来证明。

Comment

– 中文解释:n. 评论;意见;批评vi. 发表评论;发表意见vt. 为…作评语

-潜台词:Make critical observations, even if they are fairly open-ended. Your texts, learning guide, lecture and discussion notes should provide sufficient guidelines and your own commonsense should prevail.

提醒:

此处的【意见】,并不单指发表意见就可以了,需要你提供critical observations,也就是评判性观察。

Compare

– 中文解释:vt. 比较;对照;比喻为vi. 比较;相比n. 比较

-潜台词:Find similarities and differences between two or more ideas, events, interpretations, etc. Ensure you understand exactly what you are being asked to compare.

提醒:

此处更加侧重于对(两个)比较事物的全面理解。首先你可以Identify 他们的相同点和相似点。然后再比较区别,即使问题里没有明确叫你去比较. If appropriate, justify your choice.

Contrast

– 中文解释:vi. 对比;形成对照vt. 使对比;使与…对照n. 对比;差别;对照物

-潜台词:Find similarities and differences between two or more ideas, events, interpretations etc. Focus on the differences.

提醒:

此处的【对比】,相比较Compare,更侧重于对比两件事物间的差异对比。If appropriate, give reasons for your preference

Critical Analysis

– 中文解释:批判分析

-潜台词:Examine the topic or argument in terms of its strengths and weaknesses.

提醒:

反思查看文章主题的优点和不足。

Criticise

– 中文解释:vt. 批评;吹毛求疵;非难

-潜台词:Express your judgements regarding the correctness or merit of the factors being considered. Discuss both strong and weak points and give the results of your own analysis. Student insights are expected and arguments must be justified.

提醒:

先要表明你的判断,再进行分析讨论,最后,一定要给出你分析的结果。

Define

– 中文解释:vt. 定义;使明确;规定

-潜台词:Provide concise, clear, authoritative meanings. In such statements, details are not necessarily required, but briefly cite the boundaries or limitations of the definition. Remeber the ‘class’ to which a things belongs and whatever differentiates the particular object from all others in that class.

提醒:

简明,明确,权威的定义,细节不一定重要,但要differentiatesfrom all others in that class.

Describe

– 中文解释:vt. 描述,形容;描绘

-潜台词:Recall facts, processes or events. You are not asked to explain or interpret. Try to provide a thorough description, emphasising the most important points.

提醒:

回顾整个事实,过程或事件。注意是需要讲清楚the features。而不是去explain或者interpret,是做一个全面的描述,需要emphasising the most important points的描述。

Diagram

– 中文解释:-n. 图表;图解vt. 用图解法表示

-潜台词:Present a drawing, chart, plan or graphic representation in your answer. Generally, you are also expected to label the diagram and a brief explanation or description may be required.

提醒:

图表除了图之外,别忘了同时简单对图表进行简单的explanation or description。

Discuss

– 中文解释: vt. 讨论;论述,辩论

-潜台词:Present a point of view. This is likely to need both description and interpretation. Your opinion must be supported by carefully chosen and authoritative evidence.

提醒:

介绍一下观点。你的观点可得靠carefully chosen and authoritative evidence展现。

Enumerate

– 中文解释:vt. 列举;枚举;计算

-潜台词:Provide a list or outline form of reply. In such questions you should recount, one by one, but concisely, the points required.

提醒:

列出清单或是大纲,同时你应该逐一,但简洁地说明要点。

Evaluate

– 中文解释:vt. 评价;估价;求…的值vi. 评价;估价

-潜台词:Present a judgement of an issue by stressing both strengths and advantages, and weaknesses and limitations. The emphasis is on assessing the value, worth or relevance of the matter under scrutinty.

提醒:

通过强调优势,弱点和局限来对问题做出判断。重点是assessing the value, worth or relevance of the matter

Explain

– 中文解释:v. 说明;解释

-潜台词:Your main focus should be on the ‘why’ of a particular issue, or on the ‘how’ with the aim of clarifying reasons, causes and effects. You are being tested on your capacity to think critically, to exercise perception and discernment.

提醒:

你应该主要的关注焦点在于 ‘why’,或者在于 ‘how’,然后阐明以下几点:reasons, causes and effects。你被测试的是你的think critically的能力,练习你的洞察力。

Illustrate

– 中文解释:vt. 阐明,举例说明;图解vi. 举例

-潜台词:This asks for an explanation; you may clarify your answer to a problem by presenting a figure, picture, diagram or concrete example.

提醒:

如中文翻译的意思图解、说明,主要用图表或是 concrete example 说明情况,给出答案。

Interpret

– 中文解释:vt. 说明;口译vi. 解释;翻译

-潜台词:Explain the meaning of something and give your own judgement of the situation.

提醒:

重点在give your own judgement

List

– 中文解释:n. [计] 列表;清单;目录vi. 列于表上vt. 列出;记入名单内

-潜台词:Give an itemised series or tabulation; such answers should be concise.

提醒:

concise,列表应该是简洁的。

Outline

– 中文解释:n. 轮廓;大纲;概要;略图vt. 概述;略述;描画…轮廓

-潜台词:This asks for an organised description. Give the main points and essential supplementary materials, but omit minor details. Present the information in a systematic arrangement or classification.

提醒:

教授和老师需要看到的,是organised description。你可以给出必要的补充材料,但不必写那些具体细节。systematic arrangement or classification就可以了。

Prove

– 中文解释:vt. 证明;检验;显示

-潜台词:To conform or verify. You should establish something with certainty by evaluating and citing experimental evidence, or by logical reasoning.

提醒:

注意需要evaluating and citing experimental evidence, or by logical reasoning来证明或是验证什么。

Relate

– 中文解释:vt. 叙述;使…有联系vi. 涉及;认同;符合;与…有某种联系

-潜台词:When showing relationships, your answer should emphasise connection and associations in a descriptive manner.

提醒:

既是强调relationships,那么就请 descriptive manner,更加客观的去呈现。

Review

– 中文解释:n. 回顾;复习;评论;检讨;检阅vt. 回顾;检查;复审vi. 回顾;复习功课;写评论

-潜台词:Re-examine, analyse and comment briefly (in an organised sequence) on the major points of an issue.

提醒:

重新回顾,分析要点。

State

– 中文解释:n. 国家;州;情形vt. 规定;声明;陈述adj. 国家的;州的;正式的n. (State)人名;(罗、瑞典)斯塔特;(英)斯泰特

-潜台词:Express the high points in brief and clear narrative form. Details, and usually illustrations or examples, may be omitted.

提醒:

这是不需要废话的。简要表达high points。那些细节、插图或例子,可以省略。

Summarise

– 中文解释:vt. 概括(等于summarize);相加

-潜台词:Provide a brief statement or an account covering the main points; omit details.

提醒:

不需要废话,直接给出结论即可。

Trace

– 中文解释:vi. 追溯;沿路走vt. 追踪,查探;描绘;回溯n. 痕迹,踪迹;微量;[仪] 迹线;缰绳

-潜台词:Give the development, process or history of a thing, event or idea, especially by proceeding from the latest to the earliest evidence.

提醒:

从最新或是最早的数据中,来推断the development, process or history of a thing。

以上就是此次的Instructional words分析,如果你在写作中不确定那些“指导性词汇”到底意味这什么的时候,你可以回过头来看看这篇文章。

或者打印详细解释。自己对照查看。

教授有潜台词你造不造?Instructional words深扒贴

pdf格式,公众号后台回复【潜台词】即可获取。

希望大家以后写作就能按照导师要求,获取高分喽~

参考文献:https://unilearning.uow.edu.au/essay/2c.html

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