看好了!文献到底怎么分析阅读?在线分步展示!


本期是

EasyGPA精心整理的

Eassy实操写作策略系列讲解

《Essay写作策略》

第三章

How to Do a Close Reading

如何仔细阅读?

↓↓↓

第一期我们说到

如何阅读作业要求——搞清楚到底要做什么

那些老师不会告诉你的作业要求!

第二期

我们讲了

“掌握作业要求”到“真正动笔”

不可缺少的一环

“确定写作主题和方向”

——搞清楚怎么开始写

写论文“毫无思绪”?那是你跳过了这一步!

这其中

我们提到了

想要像大佬一样发言

就要先要向大佬们“取经”

还要学会使用“一手数据”

同时用“权威”的“话”“狐假虎威”

也是非常有用的增强说服力的手段

到底怎么“取经”呢?

看好了!文献到底怎么分析阅读?在线分步展示!

怎么样的阅读才能

有助于我们写论文?

拿纸笔标注,画出重点,

理解作者的目的

……

这些简直就是“正确的废话”

看好了!文献到底怎么分析阅读?在线分步展示!

本期

我们就结合一个实例来为大家展示

如何通过仔细阅读来进行学习思考

希望对大家理解阅读有所帮助

看好了!文献到底怎么分析阅读?在线分步展示!

1

Annotate the text

注释文字

“Annotating”意味着对关键的词语和内容或者任何你被打动,有感触的地方进行标注,做笔记或者尝试自己进行解释

当我们用这种方式对阅读内容进行“回馈”时,我们不仅在强迫自己集中注意力,而且还开始和追随作者一起思考,这是从阅读到写作的转变的第一步。

现在

我们就来练习一下

请大家仔细阅读下方文字:

Here’s a sample passage by anthropologist and naturalist Loren Eiseley.

第一段:

. . . I once received an unexpected lesson from a spider. It happened far away on a rainy morning in the West.

I had come up a long gulch looking for fossils, and there, just at eye level, lurked a huge yellow-and-black orb spider, whose web was moored to the tall spears of buffalo grass at the edge of the arroyo.

It was her universe, and her senses did not extend beyond the lines and spokes of the great wheel she inhabited. Her extended claws could feel every vibration throughout that delicate structure.

She knew the tug of wind, the fall of a raindrop, the flutter of a trapped moth’s wing. Down one spoke of the web ran a stout ribbon of gossamer on which she could hurry out to investigate her prey.

第二段:

Curious, I took a pencil from my pocket and touched a strand of the web. Immediately there was a response. The web, plucked by its menacing occupant, began to vibrate until it was a blur.

Anything that had brushed claw or wing against that amazing snare would be thoroughly entrapped. As the vibrations slowed, I could see the owner fingering her guidelines for signs of struggle.

A pencil point was an intrusion into this universe for which no precedent existed. Spider was circumscribed by spider ideas; its universe was spider universe. All outside was irrational, extraneous, at best raw material for spider.

As I proceeded on my way along the gully, like a vast impossible shadow, I realized that in the world of spider I did not exist.

↓↓↓

看完有做出注释不?

可以另外拿出纸笔,把自己的想法记下来

建议自己先“仔细阅读”

接下来

我们要进行示范了~

对照学习可以更有帮助哦

看好了!文献到底怎么分析阅读?在线分步展示!
看好了!文献到底怎么分析阅读?在线分步展示!

2

Look for patterns in the things

找到事物的脉络框架

Look for patterns in the things you’ve noticed about the text—repetitions, contradictions, similarities.

在文章重复,矛盾,相似的地方寻找脉络框架。

解析

上一段的文章中说到了什么?

首先,看看原文中怎么说:

“. . . I once received an unexpected lesson from a spider. It happened far away on a rainy morning in the West.”

Eiseley一开始告诉我们,天体蜘蛛给他上了一课。

从而邀请我们考虑

天体蜘蛛到底怎么样让他受教了?

到底这个问题的答案是什么?

让我们更多的专注文章细节,做好归纳

看看能不能找出答案~

↓↓↓

在Eiseley的下一句话中,

我们发现这次“受教”

“发生在很早之前一个西部下雨的早晨”

这个转换,让我们立即处于另一个时间地点,有点类似于童话里“很久以前。。。”

可,为什么Eiseley要用这个类似于故事或者童话的开头?

我们还不知道,但这很奇怪,我们先把它记下来。

接着往下看:

“ I had come up a long gulch looking for fossils, and there, just at eye level, lurked a huge yellow-and-black orb spider, whose web was moored to the tall spears of buffalo grass at the edge of the arroyo. It was her universe, and her senses did not extend beyond the lines and spokes of the great wheel she inhabited. Her extended claws could feel every vibration throughout that delicate structure. She knew the tug of wind, the fall of a raindrop, the flutter of a trapped moth’s wing. Down one spoke of the web ran a stout ribbon of gossamer on which she could hurry out to investigate her prey.”

Curious, I took a pencil from my pocket and touched a strand of the web. Immediately there was a response. The web, plucked by its menacing occupant, began to vibrate until it was a blur. Anything that had brushed claw or wing against that amazing snare would be thoroughly entrapped. As the vibrations slowed, I could see the owner fingering her guidelines for signs of struggle. A pencil point was an intrusion into this universe for which no precedent existed. Spider was circumscribed by spider ideas; its universe was spider universe. All outside was irrational, extraneous, at best raw material for spider. As I proceeded on my way along the gully, like a vast impossible shadow, I realized that in the world of spider I did not exist.

↓↓↓

出现了更多的语言细节让我们相信我们的位置”in the West.”——gulch, arroyo, and buffalo grass.

Eiseley 称 蜘蛛的网 为”her universe她的宇宙” and “the great wheel she inhabited她住的巨轮,” ,就像天空中的巨轮,宇宙一样。

通过隐喻,蜘蛛网成了”spider universe蜘蛛宇宙.” “she蜘蛛” 的 “senses did not extend beyond her universe感官没有延伸到她的宇宙之外” , 知道”the flutter of a trapped moth’s wing被困飞蛾翅膀的颤动” 和赶紧”to investigate her prey查探她的猎物.”

Eiseley可以看到她”fingering her guidelines for signs of struggle.指责她的奋斗迹象”

这些语言细节和其他细节将the web 的“所有者”描述为会思考,感受,努力的一种生物 – 一种与我们一样的生物。

这个时候我们还没找出答案

我们需要更细致的分析

3

Ask questions

提出问题

Ask questions about the patterns you’ve noticed—especially how and why.

提出你注意到的关于文章脉络相关的问题,特别是如何和为何。

让我们再回顾一些文章内容,

看看还有没有其他被忽视的地方。

比如:

“ I took a pencil from my pocket and touched a strand of the web当我从口袋里拿出铅笔触碰网”时,

对于蜘蛛来说:

这是“for which no precedent existed没有先例存在的事件

蜘蛛当然对铅笔束手无策:“Spider was circumscribed by spider ideas蜘蛛受蜘蛛想法的限制。

当然,蜘蛛没有想法,但我们有想法。

如果我们开始看到对人类而言这一段,看到在“她的宇宙”作为我们在我们的宇宙状况的类比,那么我们可以猜测Eiseley 是在暗示,我们的宇宙(也是有限的),我们的思想同样受到限制,超出我们宇宙极限的范围的现象可能会有像Eiseley 所描述的那样 – 就像超出了蜘蛛的理解范围——那种“vast impossible shadow巨大的不可能的阴影” 。

但为什么 vast and impossible,为什么会有shadow呢?

“I”是否意味着上帝,外星人?或其他什么,我们无法命名甚至想象的东西?这是“受教”吗?

我们再回到开头:

我们第一个觉得奇怪的地方

那个类似“童话”的开头

以及后续对蜘蛛的描写~

你就会突然意识到这是为了方便

对“某个无法解释的东西”作出的描述

though the spider can’t explain, or even apprehend, Eiseley’s pencil point, that pencil point is explainable—rational after all.

虽然蜘蛛无法解释,甚至无法理解Eiseley的铅笔,但铅笔点(对于我们)是可以合理解释的。

天体蜘蛛到底怎么样让他受教了?

这个问题的答案相信你也有结果了

当然

此处仅截取了文章的两个段落

如果想要

找到“I”到底是什么?

那就需要详细的理解全文,去寻找更多的线索。

以上

对如何分析阅读的示范就暂时到这里了~

总结一下重点:

密切关注文章细节找出文章脉络

提出问题并作出猜测

在文章中寻找依据和证明

你也可以在以后的文献阅读中实践一下

这是

学术写作非常至关重要的一个过程

如果再简而言之,我们阅读文献分析的时候究竟在干什么?

我们在推理自己的想法

而这正是你该做的

看好了!文献到底怎么分析阅读?在线分步展示!

《Essay写作策略》前期回顾

第一课

How to Read an Assignment

第二课

Moving from Assignment to Topic

*参考来源有道词典,哈佛写作指南

—以上—

我是小E

有用的知识更是有趣的

知道了方法更需要实践才能真正掌握

想要知道自己的写作方法到底对不对?

EasyGPA有专业老师实时给你指导哦~

↓↓↓

看好了!文献到底怎么分析阅读?在线分步展示!

原文始发于微信公众号(EasyGPA学园):看好了!文献到底怎么分析阅读?在线分步展示!
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