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Essay正式写作到终稿全过程指南!


唔,首先,

超超超超超…长文预警!

Essay正式写作到终稿全过程指南!

因为我们一口气放出了《乔丹·彼得森的Essay写作指南》的「剩余篇章」

也是该指南「最精华的一部分」!☟

「正式写作到最终提交全过程指南!」

Essay正式写作到终稿全过程指南!

也是因为每一步的过程写的很详细(甚至有点啰嗦)。所以文章才这样长~但好处是,可以很方便照做~

相信按照这个流程写论文,不说一定能得个7080分,但就是看在这样严谨的份上,老师给分都不会太低~

Essay正式写作到终稿全过程指南!

还是和之前一样,我们把 「英语原文直接附在译文下方。」

完整【英语原文】可点击【阅读原文】查看

唔~翻译很渣,还请多多包涵。

正文:

乔丹·彼得森的Essay写作指南

第一部分 介绍

逼自己认真写论文的最强理由

6个让你写Essay瞬间轻松的技巧

第二部分:论文的层级

  1. 到底什么样的论文是“美”的?

第三部分:主题和阅读清单

  1. 怎么进行选题与主题阅读?

第四部分:大纲

进行到这一步,你已经准备了主题列表和阅读清单。现在是时候「决定写作主题」了。

At this point you have prepared a list of topics, and a reading list. Now it’s time to choose a topic.

「在此输入主题」 1。

这里另有规则。Here’s another rule.

Essay正式写作到终稿全过程指南!

当你写初稿时,它应比最终版本更长。

这是为了让你有足够的文字可以删减。在初稿后删掉一些内容,以便只保留好内容。

When you write your first draft, it should be longer than the final version. This is so that you have some extra writing to throw away.

「当你刚开始写初稿时,字斟酌句并不会提高效率,只会让你过于在意写作的内容从而拖慢你的速度。。」

You want to have something to throw away after the first draft so that you only have to keep what is good. It is NOT faster to try to write exactly as many words as you need when you first sit down to write. Trying to do so merely makes you too aware of what you are writing. This concern will slow you down.

Essay正式写作到终稿全过程指南!

「目标是写出比终稿要长25%的第一稿。」 如果终稿字数要求是1000字(或四页)。请在下面写下,Word文档可自动增加25%。

Aim at producing a first draft that is 25% longer than the final draft is supposed to be. If your final work is to be 1000 words, then write that (or four pages) below. The word document will automatically add 25% to the length you specify.

现在指定论文的长度。 「字数:」「页面:」「将以上字数增加25%」

接下来就是大纲。这是写文章中最困难的部分,并且不能跳过。

Now you have to write an outline. This is the most difficult part of writing an essay, and it’s not optional.

Essay正式写作到终稿全过程指南!

论文的轮廓就像身体的骨架。是论文基本形式和结构。此外,大纲是论点的基础(句子和单词都是为论点服务的)。

The outline of an essay is like the skeleton of a body. It provides its fundamental form and structure. Furthermore, the outline is basically the argument (with the sentences themselves and the words serving that argument).

1000字的论文需要10句大纲。但是,即使论文字数超过1000字或者更多,论文的基本大纲也不应超过15个句子。

A thousand-word essay requires a ten-sentence outline. However, the fundamental outline of an essay should not get much longer than fifteen sentences, even if the essay is several thousand words or more in length.

Essay正式写作到终稿全过程指南!

这是因为很难一次记住一个超过太长大纲,以便你可以评估其大纲的质量。因此,为你的论文写一个10到15个句子的大纲,「如果长度超过1000words,则为每个主要大纲写几个副标题。」

This is because it is difficult to keep an argument of more than that length in mind at one time so that you can assess the quality of its structure. So, write a ten to fifteen sentence outline of your essay, and if it is longer than a thousand words, then make sub-outlines for each primary outline sentence. Here is an example of a good simple outline:

这是一个简单概述的示例: example of a good simple outline: 主题:亚伯拉罕·林肯是谁?Topic: Who was Abraham Lincoln?
  1. 为什么亚伯拉罕·林肯值得纪念?Why is Abraham Lincoln worthy of remembrance?

  2. 他小时候的关键事件是什么?What were the crucial events of his childhood?

  3. 他的青春期?Of his adolescence?

  4. 他年轻的成年时期?Of his young adulthood?

  5. 他是如何进入政治的?How did he enter politics?

  6. 他的主要挑战是什么?What were his major challenges?

  7. 他那个时代主要的政治和经济问题是什么?What were the primary political and economic issues of his time?

  8. 谁是他的敌人?Who were his enemies?

  9. 他是如何对待他们的?How did he deal with them?

  10. 他的主要成就是什么?What were his major accomplishments?

  11. 他怎么死的?How did he die?

这是一个较长的大纲的示例(一篇三千字的论文):

  1. 「主题:什么是资本主义?」 Topic: What is capitalism?

  2. 资本主义是如何定义的?How has capitalism been defined?

  3. —作者1

  4. —作者2

  5. —作者3

  6. 资本主义何时何地发展?Where and when did capitalism develop?

  7. —国家1

  8. —国家2

  9. 资本主义起源后的头50年如何发展?How did capitalism develop in the first 50 years after its origin?

  10. -资本主义在起源后的第二个五十年如何发展?How did capitalism develop in the second 50 years after its origin?

  11. —(根据需要重复)

  12. 历史的前身?Historical precursors?

  13. —(根据需要选择多个世纪)

  14. 资本主义的优势?Advantages of capitalism?

  15. 财富产生Wealth generation

  16. 技术进步 Technological advancement

  17. 个人自由Personal freedom

  18. 资本主义的劣势?Disadvantages of capitalism?

  19. 分配不均 Unequal distribution

  20. 污染及其他外部成本 Pollution and other externalized costs

  21. 资本主义的替代品?Alternatives to capitalism?

  22. 法西斯主义Fascism

  23. 共产主义Communism

  24. 这些替代方案的后果?Consequences of these alternatives?

  25. 潜在的未来发展?Potential future developments?

  26. 结论 Conclusion

Essay正式写作到终稿全过程指南!

避免写老套,重复和陈词滥调的介绍和结论。

Beware of the tendency to write trite, repetitive and clichéd introductions and conclusions.

像这种老套的介绍(这篇文章的目的是什么?它将如何进行?)和结论(这篇文章将如何进行?它的目的是什么?)也没什么大问题,但是「通常情况下建议不要使用。」

It is often useful to write a stock intro (what is the purpose of this essay? How is it going to proceed?) and a stock conclusion (How did this essay proceed? What was its purpose?) but they should usually then be thrown away.

在这里写下你的大纲。「尝试让每一个大纲标题都能扩展出100字的论文内容。」 你可以添加细节,如上面有关资本主义的示例所示。

Write your outline here. Try for one outline heading per 100 words of essay length. You can add subdivisions, as in the example regarding capitalism, above.

在这里写大纲:

  1. 大纲句子1:

  2. 大纲句子2:

  3. 大纲句子3:

  4. 大纲句子4:

  5. 大纲句子5:

  6. 大纲句子6:

  7. 大纲句子7:

  8. 大纲句子8:

  9. 大纲句子9:

  10. 大纲句子10(必要时重复):

 

第五部分:段落

所以,现在有了大纲。复制到这里:

「此处复制的大纲」

现在,在 「每个大纲上写下10至15个句子完成一段话。」

Now, write ten to fifteen sentences per outline heading to complete your paragraph.

为你大纲增加更多的细节内容,在大纲和句子之间来回切换,你会发现同时编辑它们时非常有效率。

You may find it helpful to add additional subdivisions to your outline, and to work back and forth between the outline and the sentences, editing both. Use your notes,

Essay正式写作到终稿全过程指南!