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Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


濒临4月, 很多同学也都接近了Proposal的提交时间

可怎么写一份优秀漂亮的Proposal

依旧是很多同学的难题~

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

但好在

无论是学术论文还是Proposal

都可以说的上是某种程度上的“八股”

可以按照固定的模式和形式进行写作 也就是“套路”

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

采用最优结构化的呈现,其实能最有效的

让读者集中于最本质的内容,而不是为形式分神 这一点对于我们进行写作也同样重要 理解掌握英文学术写作的规范以及思维定势

吃透学术的“八股”

正式我们接下来要做的事~

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

下面我们将分享一篇

流传甚广的Research Proposal写作指南

来自我们老师的强烈推荐



(为了更方便同学们阅读,我们进行了简单的翻译注释,不当之处,还请见谅)


全文4505字,阅读时间约15分钟


文章作者:Paul T. P. Wong, Ph.D., C.Psych. (Research Director, Graduate Program in Counselling Psychology. Trinity Western University Langley, BC, Canada).



How to Write a Research Proposal.

学术研究报告书写作指南


Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand its importance. To put it bluntly, one’ s research is only as a good as one’ s proposal.


大多数学生和才开始进行学术写作的人并不完全理解proposal的含义,也不理解它的重要性。说白了,proposal是要和研究论文保持一致的。


An ill-conceived proposal dooms the project even if it somehow gets through the Thesis Supervisory Committee. A high quality proposal, on the other hand, not only promises success for the project, but also impresses your Thesis Committee about your potential as a researcher.


一个考虑不周的proposal会毁了这个项目,即使proposal被审核通过了。另一方面,好的proposal不仅能保证项目的成功,还能让你的审稿编辑对你的研究潜力留下深刻印象。



Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


A research proposal is intended to convince others that you have a worthwhile research project and that you have the competence and the work-plan to complete it.


研究计划的目的是在于说服别人你有一个有意义有价值的研究项目,并且你有充分的能力和全面的计划来完成它


Generally, a research proposal should contain all the key elements involved in the research process and include sufficient information for the readers to evaluate the proposed study.


一般来说,研究计划应包含研究过程中涉及的所有关键因素,并包括足够的信息,以便读者对拟议的研究进行评估。


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


Regardless of your research area and the methodology you choose, all research proposals must address the following questions: What you plan to accomplish, why you want to do it and how you are going to do it.


无论你选择的研究领域和方法是什么,所有的proposal都必须解决以下问题:你计划完成什么,你为什么想要做,你打算如何做。


The proposal should have sufficient information to convince your readers that you have an important research idea, that you have a good grasp of the relevant literature and the major issues, and that your methodology is sound.


proposal应该有足够的信息来说服你的读者,让他们相信你有一个重要的研究想法,你对相关文献和主要问题有很好的把握,你的研究方法是可靠的。


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


The quality of your research proposal depends not only on the quality of your proposed project, but also on the quality of your proposal writing.


你的proposal的好坏不仅取决于你的研究选题的好坏,也取决于你的写作表达。


A good research project may run the risk of rejection simply because the proposal is poorly written. Therefore, it pays if your writing is coherent, clear and compelling.


一个好的研究选题可能会因为proposal写得不好而可能被否决。因此,你需要写的连贯、清晰、够吸引人。


This paper focuses on proposal writing rather than on the development of research ideas.


本文主要是proposal写作,而不是研究选题。


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

Title:

It should be concise and descriptive. For example, the phrase, “An investigation of . . .” could be omitted. Often titles are stated in terms of a functional relationship, because such titles clearly indicate the independent and dependent variables.


它应该是简洁和描述性的。例如,短语“An investigation of…”可以省略。标题通常用展现关键联系,因为这样的标题清楚地表示了变量之间的关系。


However, if possible, think of an informative but catchy title. An effective title not only pricks the reader’s interest, but also predisposes him/her favourably towards the proposal.


然而,如果可能的话,想一个内涵丰富并朗朗上口的标题。一个好的标题不仅能激发读者的兴趣,而且能使他/她对proposal产生好感。


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

Abstract:

It is a brief summary of approximately 300 words. It should include the research question, the rationale for the study, the hypothesis (if any), the method and the main findings.


这是一个大约300字的简短总结。它应该包括研究问题,研究的基本原理,假设(如果有的话),研究方法和主要结论。


Descriptions of the method may include the design, procedures, the sample and any instruments that will be used.


研究方法的描述可以包括设计、程序、举例和将使用的任何仪器设施。


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

Introduction:

The main purpose of the introduction is to provide the necessary background or context for your research problem. How to frame the research problem is perhaps the biggest problem in proposal writing.


引言的主要目的是为你的研究问题提供必要的背景介绍。如何框定研究问题的范围,也许是proposal写作中最大的问题。


If the research problem is framed in the context of a general, rambling literature review, then the research question may appear trivial and uninteresting.


如果研究问题是建立在一个普遍的,杂乱的文献综述的背景下,那么研究问题可能显得琐碎和无趣。


However, if the same question is placed in the context of a very focused and current research area, its significance will become evident.


但是,如果把同样的问题放在一个非常集中和当前研究领域的背景下,它的意义就会变得显要。


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


Unfortunately, there are no hard and fast rules on how to frame your research question just as there is no prescription on how to write an interesting and informative opening paragraph. A lot depends on your creativity, your ability to think clearly and the depth of your understanding of problem areas.


不幸的是,对于如何构建你的研究问题,并没有硬性规则,就像对于如何写一段有趣且内涵丰富的开头,也没有处方一样。这在很大程度上取决于你的创造力、清晰思考的能力以及对问题领域理解的深度。


However, try to place your research question in the context of either a current “hot” area, or an older area that remains viable.

然而,试着把你的研究问题放在当前“热门”领域的背景下,或者放在仍然可行的旧领域。


Secondly, you need to provide a brief but appropriate historical backdrop.

其次,你需要提供一个简短但合适的历史背景。


Thirdly, provide the contemporary context in which your proposed research question occupies the central stage.

第三,提供你提出的研究问题处于中心阶段的当代背景。


Finally, identify “key players” and refer to the most relevant and representative publications.In short, try to paint your research question in broad brushes and at the same time bring out its significance.

最后,确定“关键参与者”并参考最相关和最有代表性的出版物。简而言之,试着把你的研究问题用大画笔画出来,同时把它的意义表现出来。


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


The introduction typically begins with a general statement of the problem area, with a focus on a specific research problem, to be followed by the rational or justification for the proposed study. The introduction generally covers the following elements:

Introduction通常以对问题领域的一般性陈述开始,重点放在一个特定的研究问题上,然后是拟定研究的合理性和理由。Introduction一般包括以下内容:



1.State the research problem, which is often referred to as the purpose of the study.

陈述研究问题,这通常被称为研究的目的。


2. Provide the context and set the stage for your research question in such a way as to show its necessity and importance.

为你的研究问题提供背景和舞台,以显示其必要性和重要性。


3. Present the rationale of your proposed study and clearly indicate why it is worth doing.

提出你所建议的研究的基本原理,并清楚地说明为什么值得做。

4. Briefly describe the major issues and sub-problems to be addressed by your research.

简要描述你的研究要解决的主要问题和次要问题。

5. Identify the key independent and dependent variables of your experiment. Alternatively, specify the phenomenon you want to study.

确定实验的关键独立变量和因变量。或者,指定你想研究的现象。

6. State your hypothesis or theory, if any. For exploratory or phenomenological research, you may not have any hypotheses. (Please do not confuse the hypothesis with the statistical null hypothesis.)

陈述你的假设或理论,如果有的话。对于探索性或现象学研究,你可能没有任何假设。(请不要将假设与统计假设混淆。)

7. Set the delimitation or boundaries of your proposed research in order to provide a clear focus.

为你所提议的研究设定界限或界限,以便提供一个清晰的重点。

8. Provide definitions of key concepts. (This is optional.)

提供关键概念的定义。(这是可选的。)



Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

Literature Review:

Sometimes the literature review is incorporated into the introduction section. However, most professors prefer a separate section, which allows a more thorough review of the literature.


有时literature review文献综述被纳入 introduction部分。然而,大多数教授更喜欢单独的部分,这样可以更全面地回顾文献。



The literature review serves several important functions:

文献综述有以下几个重要功能:


1. Ensures that you are not “reinventing the wheel”.

确保你不是在“重新发明轮子”。


2. Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your research.

给那些为你的研究打下基础的人一些”学分”.


3. Demonstrates your knowledge of the research problem.

展示你对研究问题的知识。


4. Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and research issues related to your research question.

展示你对与你的研究问题相关的理论和研究问题的理解。


5. Shows your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information.

显示你批判性地评估相关文献信息的能力


6. Indicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing literature.

表示你整合和综合现有文献的能力。


7. Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the conceptual framework for your research.

提供新的理论见解或开发新的模型作为研究的概念框架。


8. Convinces your reader that your proposed research will make a significant and substantial contribution to the literature (i.e., resolving an important theoretical issue or filling a major gap in the literature).

让你的读者知道你所提出的研究将对文献做出重要和实质性的贡献。(即,解决重要的理论问题或填补文献中的重大空白)。


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


Most students’ literature reviews suffer from the following problems: 大多数学生的文献综述存在以下问题:


* Lacking organization and structure * Lacking focus, unity and coherence * Being repetitive and verbose * Failing to cite influential papers * Failing to keep up with recent developments * Failing to critically evaluate cited papers * Citing irrelevant or trivial references * Depending too much on secondary sources

*缺乏组织和结构

*缺乏重点、统一和连贯性

*重复和啰嗦

*未能引用有影响力的论文

*跟不上最近的发展

*未能批判性地评估被引论文

*引用不相关或琐碎的参考文献

*过分依赖二手数据

Your scholarship and research competence will be questioned if any of the above applies to your proposal.

如果以上任何一项问题都存在于你的proposal.,你的奖学金和论文成绩就会很悬啦~


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


There are different ways to organize your literature review. Make use of subheadings to bring order and coherence to your review.


有不同的方法来组织你的文献综述。利用副标题使你的文章条理清晰,条理连贯。


For example, having established the importance of your research area and its current state of development, you may devote several subsections on related issues as: theoretical models, measuring instruments, cross-cultural and gender differences, etc.


例如,在确定了你的研究领域的重要性及其目前的发展状况之后,你可以在相关问题上投入几个小节:理论模型、测量工具、跨文化和性别差异等。


It is also helpful to keep in mind that you are telling a story to an audience. Try to tell it in astimulating and engaging manner. Do not bore them, because it may lead to rejection of yourworthy proposal. (Remember: Professors and scientists are human beings too.)


记住你是在给观众讲故事,这也很有帮助。试着用一种刺激和吸引人的方式来讲述。不要让他们感到厌烦,因为这可能会导致你有价值的提议被拒绝。(记住,研究者也是人。)


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


Methods:

The Method section is very important because it tells your Research Committee how you plan to tackle your research problem. It will provide your work plan and describe the activities necessary for the completion of your project.


研究方法部分非常重要,因为它告诉你的老师,你准备如何处理你的研究问题。它将提供您的计划安排,并描述完成项目所需的内容。

The guiding principle for writing the Method section is that it should contain sufficient information for the reader to determine whether methodology is sound.


编写Methods部分的指导原则是,它应该包含足够的信息,以便读者确定研究方法是否正确。


Some even argue that a good proposal should contain sufficient details for another qualified researcher to implement the study.


一些人甚至认为,一个好的proposal 应该包含足够的细节,以方便让其他研究人员来验证它。


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


You need to demonstrate your knowledge of alternative methods and make the case that your approach is the most appropriate and most valid way to address your research question.


你需要证明你对选择的研究方法的知识储备,并证明你的方法是解决研究问题的最合适和最有效的方法。

Please note that your research question may be best answered by qualitative research. However, since most mainstream psychologists are still biased against qualitative research, especially the phenomenological variety, you may need to justify your qualitative method.


请注意,你的研究问题最好通过定性研究来回答。然而,由于大多数主流心理学家仍然对定性研究有偏见,尤其是现实生活环境的多样性,你可能需要证明你的定性方法是正确的。

Furthermore, since there are no well-established and widely accepted canons in qualitative analysis,your method section needs to be more elaborate than what is required for traditional quantitative research.


此外,由于在定性分析中没有公认的和广泛接受的准则,您的method部分需要比传统的定量研究更详细。


More importantly, the data collection process in qualitative research has a far greater impact on the results as compared to quantitative research. That is another reason for greater care in describing how you will collect and analyze your data. (How to write the Method section for qualitative research is a topic for another paper.)


更重要的是,与定量研究相比,定性研究中的数据收集过程对结果的影响要大得多。这是在描述您将如何收集和分析数据时需要更加注意的另一个原因。(如何编写定性研究的方法部分是另一篇论文的主题。)


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)



For quantitative studies, the method section typically consists of the following sections:

对于定量研究,方法部分通常包括以下部分:


1. Design -Is it a questionnaire study or a laboratory experiment? What kind of design do you choose?

设计-是问卷调查研究还是实验室实验?你选择什么样的设计?


2. Subjects or participants – Who will take part in your study ? What kind of sampling procedure do you use?

受试者或参与者—谁将参与您的研究?你们用什么抽样程序?


3. Instruments – What kind of measuring instruments or questionnaires do you use? Why do you choose them? Are they valid and reliable?

调查——你使用什么样的测量工具或问卷?你为什么选择它们?它们有效可靠吗?


4. Procedure – How do you plan to carry out your study? What activities are involved? How long does it take?

流程-你计划如何进行你的研究?涉及哪些活动?需要多长时间?



Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


Results:

Obviously you do not have results at the proposal stage. However, you need to have some idea about what kind of data you will be collecting, and what statistical procedures will be used in order to answer your research question or test you hypothesis.


显然,在proposal 阶段没有结果。然而,你需要知道你将收集什么样的数据,以及将使用什么样的计算方法来回答你的研究问题或实验你的假设。


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


Discussion:

It is important to convince your reader of the potential impact of your proposed research. You need to communicate a sense of enthusiasm and confidence without exaggerating the merits of your proposal.


让你的读者相信你所提议的研究的潜在影响是很重要的。你需要在不过分夸大的情况下,以热情和自信的态度传达出研究内容的重要性。


That is why you also need to mention the limitations and weaknesses of the proposed research, which may be justified by time and financial constraints as well as by the early developmental stage of your research area.

这就是为什么你还需要提到拟议研究的局限性和弱点,这可能是由时间和财政限制以及你的研究领域还处于早期发展阶段所导致的。


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing Proposal 写作中常见的错误


1.Failure to provide the proper context to frame the research question.

未能为研究问题提供合适的框架。


2. Failure to delimit the boundary conditions for your research.

未能为您的研究划定边界。


3. Failure to cite landmark studies.

没有引用具有里程碑意义的研究。

4. Failure to accurately present the theoretical and empirical contributions by other researchers.

未能准确呈现其他研究者的理论和实证贡献。

5. Failure to stay focused on the research question.

未能专注于研究问题。

6. Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive argument for the proposed research.

未能为拟议的研究提出连贯和有说服力的论据。

7. Too much detail on minor issues, but not enough detail on major issues.

小问题细节太多,大问题细节不够。

8. Too much rambling — going “all over the map” without a clear sense of direction. (The best proposals move forward with ease and grace like a seamless river.)

漫无边际——在没有明确方向感的情况下“在地图上到处走”。(最好的Proposal 就像一条欢快的河流,从容优雅地向前流动。)

9. Too many citation lapses and incorrect references.

过多的引用错误和不正确的引用。


10. Too long or too short.

太长或太短。

11. Failing to follow the APA style.

没有遵循APA格式(注:引用格式的一种)

12. Slopping writing.

散漫式写作



Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


下一次 我们将带来Proposal 涉及具体写作上的文章 希望能对您有所帮助~


如果需要Proposal 以及毕业论文方面的辅导 可以联系我们

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

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包含Proposal 范文的查重礼包哦~


Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)
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