top of page

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)


濒临4月, 很多同学也都接近了Proposal的提交时间

可怎么写一份优秀漂亮的Proposal

依旧是很多同学的难题~

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

但好在

无论是学术论文还是Proposal

都可以说的上是某种程度上的“八股”

可以按照固定的模式和形式进行写作 也就是“套路”

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

采用最优结构化的呈现,其实能最有效的

让读者集中于最本质的内容,而不是为形式分神 这一点对于我们进行写作也同样重要 理解掌握英文学术写作的规范以及思维定势

吃透学术的“八股”

正式我们接下来要做的事~

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

下面我们将分享一篇

流传甚广的Research Proposal写作指南

来自我们老师的强烈推荐


(为了更方便同学们阅读,我们进行了简单的翻译注释,不当之处,还请见谅)

全文4505字,阅读时间约15分钟

文章作者:Paul T. P. Wong, Ph.D., C.Psych. (Research Director, Graduate Program in Counselling Psychology. Trinity Western University Langley, BC, Canada).


How to Write a Research Proposal.

学术研究报告书写作指南

Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand its importance. To put it bluntly, one’ s research is only as a good as one’ s proposal.

大多数学生和才开始进行学术写作的人并不完全理解proposal的含义,也不理解它的重要性。说白了,proposal是要和研究论文保持一致的。

An ill-conceived proposal dooms the project even if it somehow gets through the Thesis Supervisory Committee. A high quality proposal, on the other hand, not only promises success for the project, but also impresses your Thesis Committee about your potential as a researcher.

一个考虑不周的proposal会毁了这个项目,即使proposal被审核通过了。另一方面,好的proposal不仅能保证项目的成功,还能让你的审稿编辑对你的研究潜力留下深刻印象。

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

A research proposal is intended to convince others that you have a worthwhile research project and that you have the competence and the work-plan to complete it.

研究计划的目的是在于说服别人你有一个有意义有价值的研究项目,并且你有充分的能力和全面的计划来完成它

Generally, a research proposal should contain all the key elements involved in the research process and include sufficient information for the readers to evaluate the proposed study.

一般来说,研究计划应包含研究过程中涉及的所有关键因素,并包括足够的信息,以便读者对拟议的研究进行评估。

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

Regardless of your research area and the methodology you choose, all research proposals must address the following questions: What you plan to accomplish, why you want to do it and how you are going to do it.

无论你选择的研究领域和方法是什么,所有的proposal都必须解决以下问题:你计划完成什么,你为什么想要做,你打算如何做。

The proposal should have sufficient information to convince your readers that you have an important research idea, that you have a good grasp of the relevant literature and the major issues, and that your methodology is sound.

proposal应该有足够的信息来说服你的读者,让他们相信你有一个重要的研究想法,你对相关文献和主要问题有很好的把握,你的研究方法是可靠的。

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

The quality of your research proposal depends not only on the quality of your proposed project, but also on the quality of your proposal writing.

你的proposal的好坏不仅取决于你的研究选题的好坏,也取决于你的写作表达。

A good research project may run the risk of rejection simply because the proposal is poorly written. Therefore, it pays if your writing is coherent, clear and compelling.

一个好的研究选题可能会因为proposal写得不好而可能被否决。因此,你需要写的连贯、清晰、够吸引人。

This paper focuses on proposal writing rather than on the development of research ideas.

本文主要是proposal写作,而不是研究选题。

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

Title:

It should be concise and descriptive. For example, the phrase, “An investigation of . . .” could be omitted. Often titles are stated in terms of a functional relationship, because such titles clearly indicate the independent and dependent variables.

它应该是简洁和描述性的。例如,短语“An investigation of…”可以省略。标题通常用展现关键联系,因为这样的标题清楚地表示了变量之间的关系。

However, if possible, think of an informative but catchy title. An effective title not only pricks the reader’s interest, but also predisposes him/her favourably towards the proposal.

然而,如果可能的话,想一个内涵丰富并朗朗上口的标题。一个好的标题不仅能激发读者的兴趣,而且能使他/她对proposal产生好感。

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

Abstract:

It is a brief summary of approximately 300 words. It should include the research question, the rationale for the study, the hypothesis (if any), the method and the main findings.

这是一个大约300字的简短总结。它应该包括研究问题,研究的基本原理,假设(如果有的话),研究方法和主要结论。

Descriptions of the method may include the design, procedures, the sample and any instruments that will be used.

研究方法的描述可以包括设计、程序、举例和将使用的任何仪器设施。

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

Introduction:

The main purpose of the introduction is to provide the necessary background or context for your research problem. How to frame the research problem is perhaps the biggest problem in proposal writing.

引言的主要目的是为你的研究问题提供必要的背景介绍。如何框定研究问题的范围,也许是proposal写作中最大的问题。

If the research problem is framed in the context of a general, rambling literature review, then the research question may appear trivial and uninteresting.

如果研究问题是建立在一个普遍的,杂乱的文献综述的背景下,那么研究问题可能显得琐碎和无趣。

However, if the same question is placed in the context of a very focused and current research area, its significance will become evident.

但是,如果把同样的问题放在一个非常集中和当前研究领域的背景下,它的意义就会变得显要。

Proposal写作指南(双语版)(上)

Unfortunately, there are no hard and fast rules on how to frame your research question just as there is no prescription on how to write an interesting and informative opening paragraph. A lot depends on your creativity, your ability to think clearly and the depth of your understanding of problem areas.

不幸的是,对于如何构建你的研究问题,并没有硬性规则,就像对于如何写一段有趣且内涵丰富的开头,也没有处方一样。这在很大程度上取决于你的创造力、清晰思考的能力以及对问题领域理解的深度。

However, try to place your research question in the context of either a current “hot” area, or an older area that remains viable.

然而,试着把你的研究问题放在当前“热门”领域的背景下,或者放在仍然可行的旧领域。

Secondly, you need to provide a brief but appropriate historical backdrop.

其次,你需要提供一个简短但合适的历史背景。

Thirdly, provide the contemporary context in which your proposed research question occupies the central stage.

第三,提供你提出的研究问题处于中心阶段的当代背景。

Finally, identify “key players” and refer to the most relevant and representative publications.In<